Resource List -- Resilience Surveys

The brain is continually changing in response to the environment. If the toxic stress stops and is replaced by practices that build resilience, the brain can slowly undo many of the stress-induced changes. The instruments listed here are tools you can use to measure resilience.

The list is grouped by population (children/youth, adults, and communities) and organized alphabetically by instrument name.

If you know of any other resilience surveys, scales, checklists, or quizzes you think should be added to the list, please leave the information in the comments section. 


Resilience Measures for Children and Youth

Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ), 2011
Description: The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) is comprised of 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school, and community. It was developed in response to a lack of measurement tools in adolescent resilience research. The article (Gartland, et. al.) provided details instrument development and pilot results.

Adolescent Resilience Scale (ARS), 2002
Description: The ARS (Oshio, et. al.) assesses one's capacity for successful adaptation in spite of challenging or threatening circumstances. The 21-item scale explores three factors: Novelty Seeking, Emotional Regulation, and Positive Future Orientation. The original article describing scale development is in Japanese, but provided here for your benefit. The item content of the scale can be read in English in a subsequently published article found here.

Affect Knowledge Test (AKT), 1986
Description: The Affect Knowledge Test (AKT) measures preschool children's receptive and expressive knowledge of emotion through identification of happy, sad, angry, and afraid puppet faces. The AKT aims to assess 1) children's abilities to label emotions through emotional facial expressions, 2) to recognize emotional facial expressions through verbal labels, 3) to infer causes of emotions in emotion-eliciting typical situations, and 4) to take the affective perspective of others in emotion-eliciting atypical situations.

Assessing Developmental Strengths questionnaires (ADS), 2007
Description: The developmental strengths of children, youth, and adults are assessed using self-reported measures. All measures focus on the 31 Developmental Strengths areas identified in the "Resiliency Framework", which covers internal and external strengths. This tool is available for purchase, as is the published article: Donnon, Tyrone, and Wayne Hammond. "A psychometric assessment of the self-reported youth resiliency: Assessing developmental strengths questionnaire." Psychological reports 100.3 (2007): 963-978.

Challenging Situations Task
Description: The Challenging Situations Task measures preschool children’s social-emotional information. Children are presented with a series of developmentally-appropriate peer situation, cartoon vignettes  In these vignettes, a child is confronted by an aggressor. After the situation is presented, children are asked, “How would you feel?” with Happy, Sad, Angry, or Just Okay cartoon faces as options. Then, children are asked, “What would you do?” and are presented with situational options that include pro-social, aggressive, manipulative, and avoidant options.

The assessment is available for download in both English and Spanish.

Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28), 2008
Description: The tool asks 28 questions to assess overall resilience, individual traits, relationship to caregiver(s), and factors that encourage a sense of belonging. There are 4 versions of the survey: child (5-9 y.o.), youth (10-23 y.o.), adults (age 24+), person most knowledgeable (someone who knows the child or youth well). The questionnaire was developed across 11 countries and translated in 11 languages, offering a culturally and contextually relevant measure of resilience.

The CYRM is free, and a 12-item version is also available.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), 2003
Description: The scale was created at Duke University to address aspects of resilience and for use in clinical practice and research as a measure of ability to cope with stress. It has been studied in a variety of populations such as, members of different ethnic groups and cultures, Alzheimer’s caregivers, adolescents, elders, patients in treatment for PTSD, military medical personnel, medical students, college students, survivors of various traumas, social workers, and even select professional or athletic groups. The 5 dimensions of resilience measured are: personal competence, trust/tolerance/strengthening effects of stress, acceptance of change and secure relationships, control, and spiritual influences. 

There are three versions -- 2 items, 10 items and 25 items. You have to apply to use the scale, and there is a user fee. 

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment for Infants (DECA-I), 2007
Description: The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment for Infants (DECA-I) is a behavior rating scale that is completed by parents and/or caregivers which  provides an assessment of within-child protective factors central to social and emotional health and resilience in infants ages 4 weeks up to 18 months.

The full assessment kit can be ordered here.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment for Toddlers (DECA-T), 2007
Description:The 36-item Devereux Early Childhood Assessment for Toddlers (DECA-T) is a behavior rating scale that is completed by parents and/or caregivers which provides an assessment of within-child protective factors central to social and emotional health and resilience in toddlers ages 18 to 36 months. Initiative, Self-Regulation, and Attachment/Relationships are assessed.

The full assessment kit can be ordered here.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment Preschool Program, 2nd Edition (DECA-P2), 2012
Description: This assessment evaluates within-child protective factors associated with resiliency in preschool-aged children (age 3-5). Presence of 27 positive behaviors and 10 problem behaviors is evaluated. The checklist can be completed by other parents and teachers.

The assessment is available for purchase in English and Spanish and in both paper and online formats. 

The Ego Resilience 89 Scale (ER 89), 1996
Description: This simple, 14‐item uni-dimensional self‐report scale created by Block & Kremen is designed to measure ego resiliency (a stable personality characteristic) in older adolescents/young adults (study groups: 18 and 23 years).

Ego Resiliency, 2006
Description: This 102‐item self‐report scale was designed to measure ego resilience in older adolescents and young adults. The study [Bromley, Elizabeth, Jeffrey G. Johnson, and Patricia Cohen. "Personality strengths in adolescence and decreased risk of developing mental health problems in early adulthood." Comprehensive psychiatry 47.4 (2006): 315-324.] is available for purchase.

PBS Kids Resilience Quiz
Description: PBS created a platform to convey family health messaging through the character "Arthur". The 10-question Resilience Quiz is one resource to help parents and children cope and build resilience.

Resiliency: Assessing Developmental Strengths (R:ADS), 2007
Description:  There are 3 self-report measures to assess developmental strengths in children (9-13 y.o.), youth (13-24 y.o.), and adults (18+ y.o.). The R:ADS focuses on 31 developmental strengths.

Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ), 2006
Description: (Hjemdal et al.) The 28-question self-report scale examines personal competence, social competence, structured style, family cohesion, and social resources as predictors of depression or successful stress adaption. This adolescent scale was based on the Resilience Scale for Adults, which was developed by the same researchers in 2001. 

The full list of questions is not presented in the paper, but it may be possible to request the scale via from the author.

Resiliency Attitudes and Skills Profile (RASP), 2001
Description: The tool was designed to measure resiliency in youth for recreation and other social services. There are 34 questions to assess 7 dimensions of resiliency: insight, independence, creativity, humor, initiative, relationships, and values orientation. The 7 dimensions of resiliency were taken from the 1993 research of Wolin and Wolin and are rooted in family counseling. As such, the scale may lack generalizability. 

Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents (RSCA), 2006
Description: The tool profiles personal strengths and vulnerability in those age 9-18. The scales are composed of 3 stand-alone global scales (Sense of Mastery, Sense of Relatedness, and Emotional Reactivity) and 10 subscales including optimism, trust, and sensitivity. The scale is treatment-focused and best used with Beck Youth Inventories, Reynolds Bully Victimization Scales, and Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales. 

You can purchase the complete kit for $125.75.

The Resiliency Quiz, 2007
Description: Nan Henderson, author of Resiliency in Action, developed this 18-question quiz for anyone—teens, adults, elders—to assess and strengthen the resiliency building conditions in their lives. The quiz is augmented by a list of "resiliency builders". 

Southern Kennebec Healthy Start Resilience Questionnaire, 2013
Description: This questionnaire was developed by the early childhood service providers, pediatricians, psychologists, and health advocates of Southern Kennebec Healthy Start, Augusta, Maine, in 2006, and updated in February 2013. Two psychologists in the group, Mark Rains and Kate McClinn, came up with the 14 statements with editing suggestions by the other members of the group. The scoring system was modeled after the ACE Study questions. Its purpose is limited to education. It was not developed for research.

True Resilience Scale, 1993
Description: Also known as the Resilience Scale (RS), this 14- and 25-item survey was developed by Gail Wagnild and Heather Young at The Resilience Center for students and professional researchers. The resilience scale measures the five core characteristics of resilience (purpose, perseverance, self reliance, equanimity, and authenticity). It is suitable for ages 13 and over. The 25-item survey takes about five minutes to complete, the 14-item version takes half that time. There is a section on the web site that lists all the research that has used the True Resilience Scale. The Resilience Center charges a licensing fee of $150 for researchers to use the survey, and $75 for student researchers or researchers in developing countries. Here is a link to the original 1993 paper by Wagnild and Young.

Resilience Measures for Adults

Brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back, 2008
Description: Developed at The Ohio State University, the BRS is a short, 6-question survey assessing the ability to recover from stress. Its psychometric characteristics were examined in four samples, including two student samples and samples with cardiac and chronic pain patients.

It covers resilience promotion in the individual.

Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28), 2008
Description: The tool asks 28 questions to assess overall resilience, individual traits, relationship to caregiver(s), and factors that encourage a sense of belonging. There are 4 versions of the survey: child (5-9 y.o.), youth (10-23 y.o.), adults (age 24+), person most knowledgeable (someone who knows the child or youth well). The questionnaire was developed across 11 countries and translated in 11 languages, offering a culturally and contextually relevant measure of resilience.

The CYRM is free, and a 12-item version is also available.

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, 2013
Description: The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (Pennebaker & Susman) is a brief survey of six early traumatic experiences (death, divorce, violence, sexual abuse, illness or other), and asseses individual's understanding of their childhood trauma.

Devereux Adult Resilience Survey (DARS), 2008
Description: The Devereux Adult Resilience Survey is a 23-item reflective checklist that provides adults with information about their personal strengths. The information can be used to help individuals build on these strength, such as creativity and setting limits, so that they can better cope with adversity and the stresses of daily life.

The Dispositional Resilience Scale, 2007
Description:  This most up-to-date version of Dr. Paul Bartone's 15-item scale is better balanced for positive and negative items and is more culture-free than previous versions of the scale. It measures 3 dimensions of psychological hardiness: commitment, control, and challenge.  This scale regards resilience as a fixed trait rather than a dynamic process.

The Ego Resilience 89 Scale (ER 89), 1996
Description: This simple, 14‐item uni-dimensional self‐report scale created by Block & Kremen is designed to measure ego resiliency (a stable personality characteristic) in older adolescents/young adults (study groups: 18 and 23 years).

Ego Resiliency, 2006
Description: This 102‐item self‐report scale was designed to measure ego resilience in older adolescents and young adults. The study [Bromley, Elizabeth, Jeffrey G. Johnson, and Patricia Cohen. "Personality strengths in adolescence and decreased risk of developing mental health problems in early adulthood." Comprehensive psychiatry 47.4 (2006): 315-324.] is available for purchase.

How Resilient Are You?, 2006
Description: This quiz was created by the late Al Siebert, PhD. If you are interested in using The Resiliency Quiz in your own organization, please see Practical Psychology Press for pricing and usage information.

Post Traumatic Growth Inventory, 1996
Description: This instrument created by Tedeschi & Calhoun is a 21-item scale that includes factors of New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life.

Psychological Resilience, 2008
Description: This is a 19-question survey assessing 3 dimensions of psychological resistance (self esteem, personal competence, and interpersonal control) in older adults age 50-90. Self-esteem was measured using the 10-item Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Personal competence was assessed with the 1993 Wagnild & Young Resilience Scale. Interpersonal control rated according to the Spheres of Control scales developed by Paulus & Christie in 1981. 

Resiliency: Assessing Developmental Strengths (R:ADS), 2007
Description:  There are 3 self-report measures to assess developmental strengths in children (9-13 y.o.), youth (13-24 y.o.), and adults (18+ y.o.). The R:ADS focuses on 31 developmental strengths.

Resiliency: Assessing Developmental Strengths (R:ADS), 2007
Description:  There are 3 self-report measures to assess developmental strengths in children (9-13 y.o.), youth (13-24 y.o.), and adults (18+ y.o.). The R:ADS focuses on 31 developmental strengths.

Resilience Scale (RS), 1993
Description: (Wagnild & Young) The 25‐item RS measures the degree of individual resilience through five components: equanimity, perseverance, self‐reliance, meaningfulness, and existential aloneness. All items are scored on a 7‐point scale from 1=disagree to 7=agree. A 14‐item version (RS-14) is also available. The scale is derived from interviews with “resilient” individuals and measures personal attributes associated with resilience.

Resilience Scale (RS), 2003
Description: (Friborg et al.) The RSA is a self-report scale with five scoring items which examine the intra and interpersonal protective factors that promote adaptation to adversity. They are personal competence, social competence, social support, family coherence, and personal structure.

The scale and original study cannot be located at this time

The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), 2004
Description: The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (Bride, Robinson, Yegidis, & Figley) is a 17-item, self-report measure of secondary trauma of three domains of traumatic stress specifically associated with secondary exposure to trauma: intrusion, avoidance, and arousal.

True Resilience Scale, 1993
Description: Also known as the Resilience Scale (RS), this 14- and 25-item survey was developed by Gail Wagnild and Heather Young at The Resilience Center for students and professional researchers. The resilience scale measures the five core characteristics of resilience (purpose, perseverance, self reliance, equanimity, and authenticity). It is suitable for ages 13 and over. The 25-item survey takes about five minutes to complete, the 14-item version takes half that time. There is a section on the web site that lists all the research that has used the True Resilience Scale. The Resilience Center charges a licensing fee of $150 for researchers to use the survey, and $75 for student researchers or researchers in developing countries. Here is a link to the original 1993 paper by Wagnild and Young.

Resilience Measures for Communities

ACEs and Resilience Collective Community Capacity (ARC3) survey, 2016
Description: The ARC3 survey was created to measure the ACEs Public-Private Initiative (APPI) sites’ collective community capacity to address ACEs and increase resilience in their communities. This report describes the development, design, implementation, and results of the survey, which is provided in the appendix.

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