"Although poverty alone does not inevitably place a child’s development at risk, disadvantaged children are relatively more likely to be exposed to adverse childhood experiences due to family unemployment, maternal depression, food and home insecurity, and other poverty-related factors.  Childcare without appropriate attention paid to child development is a lost opportunity and will not yield the desired results. New biological research strongly suggests that adverse childhood experiences in the form of hostility or indifference have lasting negative impacts on a child’s ability to learn….
“Jack P. Shonkoff, a research scientist who studies Adverse Childhood Experiences, stated recently: “It’s asking too much to require parent education and an enriched preschool program to counteract the effects of the level of adversity in some kids’ lives...” …
Liu, JC. (Jun. 2013). "The $4 Billion Deficit: Ratcheting Up Investment in Early Childhood Education." New York City Comptroller.
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