By Denis P. Gray, Diana Dean, and Philip M. Dean, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, February 13, 2020
Child-rearing is culturally determined, varying between countries. For thousands of years in most cultures, it has been kinship groups and parents, especially mothers, who have been central.
Parenting changed in the mid-20th century, partly through better educational opportunities for women, partly through reliable birth control and partly through cultural agreement on female emancipation. Hence, many more women have entered work and universities.
Mothers of children aged under three years now increasingly go out to work. In England, 75% of women with dependent children work (Office of National Statistics, 2019), while their very young children are often placed in daycare with carers unknown to the child.