All of these practices and frameworks are -- or should be -- informed by the new knowledge about the unified science of human development, aka ACEs writ large, or NEAR science. This encompasses the epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences (ACE studies), the neurobiology of toxic stress, the biomedical and epigenetic consequences of toxic stress, and resilience research.
Frameworks and Models
Source: The Trauma Center at the Justice Resource Institute, MA, USA
Description: ARC is a framework for intervention with youth and families who have experienced multiple and/or prolonged traumatic stress. ARC identifies three core domains that are frequently impacted among traumatized youth, and which are relevant to future resiliency. ARC provides a theoretical framework, core principles of intervention, and a guiding structure for providers working with these children and their caregivers, while recognizing that a one-size-model does not fit all. ARC is designed for youth from early childhood to adolescence and their caregivers or caregiving systems.
Ages: Early childhood through adolescence
Source: Child Trauma Academy, TX, USA
Description: NMT is a developmentally-informed, biologically-respectful approach to working with at-risk children. Dr. Bruce Perry, senior fellow of the academy, teaches the Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics. NMT is not a specific therapeutic technique or intervention; it is a way to organize a child’s history and current functioning. The goal of this approach is to structure assessment of a child, the articulation of the primary problems, identification of key strengths and the application of interventions (educational, enrichment and therapeutic) in a way that will help family, educators, therapists and related professionals best meet the needs of the child. The academy offers online courses on the NMT model.
Ages: All ages
School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS or swPBIS)
SWPBIS framework is applied to entire school or district in a system where students' positive behavior is identified, explained, supported and rewarded. Schools teach students behavioral expectations as any core curriculum subject. A school focuses on three to five behavioral expectations that are positively stated and easy to remember. Rather than telling students what not to do, the school focuses on the preferred behaviors. The behavioral expectations are delineated and taught -- to adults and students -- as to what they look like, sound like, and feel like in the classroom and non-classroom areas. More than 20,000 schools in the U.S. have integrated PBIS or swPBIS. Generally speaking, after a school or school system integrates the PBIS framework, then those educators teach other schools and systems. Educators can also take online classes.
Safe & Civil Schools
Source: Safe & Civil Schools
Safe & Civil Schools focuses on K-12 educators to improve school climate and culture. The approaches include improving schools' behavior management strategies and classroom management, implementing school improvement plans and positive behavior support and response to intervention (RTI) for behavior. Data-gathering is part of the process, to make decisions school-wide, in classrooms, and with individual students. Safe & Civil is being used by more than 6,000 school in the U.S. Schools receive training from Safe & Civil certified trainers, who continue to work with a school and its staff throughout the training process.
Practices -- Community Schools
Coalition for Community Schools, Washington, DC, USA
Description: The Coalition for Community Schools, housed at the Institute for Educational Leadership, is an alliance of national, state and local organizations in education K-16, youth development, community planning and development, family support, health and human services, government and philanthropy as well as national, state and local community school networks. Community schools are both a place and a set of partnerships between the school and other community resources. There are a number of national models and local community school initiatives that share a common set of principles: fostering strong partnerships, sharing accountability for results, setting high expectations, building on the community’s strengths, and embracing diversity and innovative solutions. This organizations provides a guide and FAQs and hosts a national conference.
Communities in Schools, VA, USA
Description: The Communities in Schools model positions site coordinators inside schools to assess students’ needs and provide resources to help them succeed in the classroom and in life. That person partners with local businesses, social service agencies, health care providers and volunteers to provide whatever is necessary for student success, including food, school supplies, health care, counseling, academic assistance or a positive role model.
National Center for Community Schools, NY, USA
Description: The National Center for Community Schools is a program of the Children's Aid Society of New York City. The role of the National Center is to build the capacity of schools, districts, community partners and government agencies to organize their human and financial resources around student success. Since 1994, NCCS has provided training, consultation and other forms of technical assistance to nearly all of the major national and international community school initiatives. It offers guides, videos, on-site consulting and instruction.
School of the 21st Century (21C), CT, USA
Description: Based at Yale University, the 21C program develops, researches, networks, and supervises a national model that links communities, families, and schools. It focuses on support for parents, services, supporting child care providers, health and education services, early care and education, and after/before/vacation programs. There are currently over 1300 21C schools across the United States. The site has guides, reports and research.
Practices -- Mindfulness
Mindful Schools, CA, USA
Description: Mindful Schools is a not-for-profit training organization with online and in-person courses, content, and a network of mindful educators spanning all 50 U.S. states and 100+ countries.
Mindfulness in Schools Project, England, UK
Description: .b, pronounced [dot-be], stands for ‘Stop, Breathe and Be!’ is the name for the range of courses created by Mindfulness in Schools Project, a non-profit organisation whose aim is to encourage, support and research the teaching of secular mindfulness in schools.
MindUp, FL, USA
Description: MindUP, supported by the Hawn Foundation, is a research-based training program for educators and children. This program is composed of 15 lessons based in neuroscience. Students learn to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. MindUP lessons align with all state standards including Common Core and support improved academic performance while enhancing perspective taking, empathy and kindness as well as fostering complex problem solving skills.
Quiet Time, NY, USA
Description: The Quiet Time program, part of the David Lynch Foundation, is a practical, evidence-based approach to reduce stress and dramatically improve academic performance, student wellness and the school environment. It provides students with two 15-minute periods of Transcendental Meditation each day to help balance their lives and improve their readiness to learn.
Practices -- Other
Healing Species, SC, USA
Description: Teaching compassion, preventing violence, and changing lives through rescued dogs.
Ages: 2nd grade +
Practices -- Restorative Practices/Justice
Restorative Justice 4 Schools, England, UK
Description: Restorative Justice 4 Schools provides training, consulting and support to all areas of education wishing to implement and develop a restorative approach to behavioural management. Its team of trainers is experienced in all aspects of restorative justice including the youth justice system, residential care staff and the secure estate.
Safe, Saner Schools, PA, USA
Description: The International Institute for Restorative Practices administers this two-year implementation program. It works with school leadership and staff develop a customized plan based on their own needs and goals. Everyone on the school staff has a say and a role in implementation. Several staff are selected and trained as professional development instructors to ensure program sustainability. The whole-school change program involves 11 essential elements, including affective statements, restorative questions, fair process, small impromptu conferences, proactive circles, responsive circles and restorative conferences. Staff teams, working in small professional learning groups, focus on understanding and using these elements.
Practices -- Social Emotional Learning (SEL)
Programs that helps students develop skills to manage their emotions, resolve conflicts, and make responsible decisions.
Examples of social emotional learning programs:
Roots of Empathy
Description: An award-winning charitable organization that brings empathy-based (and evidence-based) programming to children. The program has shown dramatic effect in increasing positive social behaviour and decreasing aggression and bullying. The organization's mission is to create a caring, peaceful and civil society through the development of empathy in children and adults.
Description: Developed by the Committee for Children, Second Step is supported by music and videos, take-home activities, and stories kids relate to. The developmentally appropriate Second Step lessons have helped teachers instill social-emotional skills in their students for over 20 years. Student lessons are easy to teach, right out of the box.
Ages: Early childhood through grade 8
Practices -- Therapeutic
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), CA, USA
Description: CBITS is a school-based, group and individual intervention. It is designed to reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and behavioral problems, and to improve functioning, grades and attendance, peer and parent support, and coping skills.
CBITS has been used with students from 5th grade through 12th grade. Intended to be administered by mental health clinicians, CBITS uses cognitive-behavioral techniques (for example, psychoeducation, relaxation, social problem solving, cognitive restructuring, and exposure). CBITS offers online and in-person training. CBITS has been successfully implemented in urban and rural elementary, middle, and high schools across the United States and internationally. This culturally competent program is effective with diverse multicultural populations including African American, Latino, Native American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Caucasian youth. The CBITS program includes 10 group sessions, one to three individual sessions, and two parent informational sessions.