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Epigenetics refers to changes in DNA. Trauma can cause activation and deactivation of genes and other changes. Those changes manifest as chronic disease, lower IQ and shorter lifespan. Intergenerational transmission of trauma refers to environmental issues like parenting styles, abuse and neglect being passed from one generation to the next. These two phenomena often occur at the same time but are two different mechanisms. 

Both epigenetic and "wire together/fire-together" changes can be inter-generational, as can *skills deficits* that are passed along, too-- which can be quite bad on their own!   If you can't self regulate, you won't co regulate your baby, and they then won't self regulate either. 

That's intergenerational encoding too though possibly not epigenetically.... except insofar as unregulated stress itself causes changes.

Keep in mind. van der Kolk got fired from Harvard for junk science and more recently, from JRI, for bullying (traumatizing) his staff. I was there when that happened. He will attack those who disagree with him- men remotely, women in person. Here is the results of a google scholar search on the subject. I'm a psychologist trained in marriage and family therapy.  For decades, before epigenetics was considered a legitimate science, psychiatrist and family therapists, such Murray Bowen, have taught about intergenerational transmission of symptoms. 

Intergenerational transmission of trauma effects: putative role of epigenetic mechanisms

R YehudaA Lehrner - World Psychiatry, 2018 - Wiley Online Library
This paper reviews the research evidence concerning the intergenerational transmission of
trauma effects and the possible role of epigenetic mechanisms in this transmission. Two
broad categories of epigenetically mediated effects are highlighted. The first involves β€¦

Holocaust exposure induced intergenerational effects on FKBP5 methylation

R YehudaNP Daskalakis, LM Bierer, HN Bader… - Biological β€¦, 2016 - Elsevier
… Cortisol. Epigenetics. FKBP5. Intergenerational. PTSD. Stress β€¦ Thus, we investigated epigenetic
changes in FKBP5 methylation in Holocaust survivors, offspring, and demographically β€¦ were also
recruited by advertisement for a separate project evaluating intergenerational effects of β€¦

[BOOK] Intergenerational trauma: Understanding Natives' inherited pain

MA Pember - 2016 - mapember.com
… What exactly is historical or intergenerational trauma β€¦ Epigenetics is indeed a hot topic, and
pharmaceutical companies are actively searching for epigenetic compounds that will β€¦ Scientific
developments such as epigenetics can offer exciting new insights not only into how our β€¦

[PDF] The public reception of putative epigenetic mechanisms in the transgenerational effects of trauma

R YehudaA Lehrner, LM Bierer - Environmental epigenetics, 2018 - academic.oup.com
… Epigenetics in the Popular Press: Potential for Oversimplification and Overcorrection Although
research on intergenerational transmission of trauma effects via epigenetic mechanisms in people
has only just be- gun, potential applications of this research does not seem β€¦

[PDF] Epigenetic transmission of holocaust trauma: can nightmares be inherited

NPF Kellermann - Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci, 2013 - peterfelix.tripod.com
… Dekel, R. & Goldblatt, H. (2008). Is There Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma? The Case
of Combat Veteransβ€Ÿ Children β€¦ Introduction Epigenetics. Nature, 447, 395 β€¦ Franklin, TB et al.
(2010). Epigenetic Transmission of the Impact of early stress across generations β€¦

Epigenetic inheritance and the intergenerational transfer of experience.

L Harper - Psychological bulletin, 2005 - psycnet.apa.org
… 131, No. 3, 340–360. Epigenetic Inheritance and the Intergenerational Transfer of Experience.
Lawrence V. Harper. Author Affiliations β€¦ Harper, L. (2005). Epigenetic Inheritance and the
Intergenerational Transfer of Experience. Psychological Bulletin, 131(3), 340-360 β€¦

Living in β€œsurvival mode:” Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933 in Ukraine

B Bezo, S Maggi - Social Science & Medicine, 2015 - Elsevier
… the family has often been viewed as the vehicle for intergenerational transmission (Rowland β€¦ the
interplay between social and biological forces, the emerging field of epigenetics postulates that
social experiences, including familial ones, result in epigenetic changes that β€¦

Biological pathways for historical trauma to affect health: a conceptual model focusing on epigenetic modifications

AKS Conching, Z Thayer - Social Science & Medicine, 2019 - Elsevier
… the potential reversible nature of epigenetic modifications suggests that these trauma-induced
epigenetic effects are not β€¦ Historical trauma. Embodiment. Health disparities. Epigenetics.
Intergenerational trauma. Indigenous health. Intergenerational effects. Developmental β€¦

Cultural trauma and epigenetic inheritance

A LehrnerR Yehuda - Development and psychopathology, 2018 - cambridge.org
… The field of epigenetics has generated great interest by offering a mechanism through which
the β€¦ Figure 1. Intergenerational transmission of biological effects of trauma β€¦ Preconception trauma
exposure (F0) may affect the epigenetic status of maternal oocytes or paternal sperm β€¦

Transgenerational epigenetics of traumatic stress

A Jawaid, M RoszkowskiIM Mansuy - Progress in molecular biology and β€¦, 2018 - Elsevier
… Keywords. Trauma. Stress. Transgenerational. IntergenerationalEpigenetics. Human. Rodent.
Germ line β€¦ 4. This chapter discusses the epigenetic mechanisms important for brain functions
in the context of susceptibility to traumatic stress and its consequences β€¦
Last edited by Jane Stevens (ACEs Connection staff)

The early intergenerational family therapists (Bowen with anxiety, Normal Paul with grief, Framo with object relations and Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy with reciprocity and loyalties) focused on psychosocial adaptations, not altered genetics, to explain transgenerational transmission of symptoms.  They would have been laughed at if they did- the scientific inquiry was not there. We know know that stress and trauma affect the substance of life- DNA. Exposure can damage telomeres, the end caps of the DNA strands (chromosomes) where genes are located.

How chronic stress is harming our DNA

https://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/10/chronic-stress

Stress, Aging, and Telomeres

https://www.stress.org/stress-aging-and-telomeres

Telomere Shortening and Stress

https://www.azolifesciences.co...ning-and-Stress.aspx

Early-Life Stress Affects Telomeres Later

https://www.the-scientist.com/...elomeres-later-32742

There is increasing evidence that subsequent generations are affected.


Can Childhood Adversity Affect Telomeres of the Next ...

ajp.psychiatryonline.org β€Ί doi β€Ί appi.ajp.2019.19111161
 
Jan 1, 2020 - We already know that this direct transmission of telomere length can occur with very short telomeres (10) and with long telomeres (affecting both first and second generations) (16). Thus, it is feasible that stress-related moderately shorter gamete telomeres are directly transmitted to future generations of offspring.

Intergenerational Transmission of Depression: Telomeres

womensmentalhealth.org β€Ί posts β€Ί intergenerational-tra...
 
Apr 30, 2015 - Intergenerational Transmission of Depression: Telomere Shortening and Cortisol Reactivity in Girls at High Risk for Depression. By MGH ...

Intergenerational Transmission of Paternal ... - Nature

www.nature.com β€Ί scientific reports β€Ί articles
 
Aug 2, 2017 - The second purpose of this study was to examine the paternal transmission of telomere length (TL) by investigating its epigenetic regulation.
by H Hehar - β€Ž2017 - β€ŽCited by 5 - β€ŽRelated articles

Intergenerational Transmission of Childhood Trauma? Testing ...

www.sciencedirect.com β€Ί science β€Ί article β€Ί pii
 
2 days ago - Substantiated child sexual abuse exposure was not associated with shorter telomeres in adulthood. β€’. Longer maternal telomere length and ...

Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere ... - NCBI

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov β€Ί pmc β€Ί articles β€Ί PMC5705286
 
Oct 5, 2017 - In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of markers of biological versus ...
by AM Mitchell - β€Ž2018 - β€ŽCited by 26 - β€ŽRelated articles

Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov β€Ί pubmed
 
Oct 5, 2017 - Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal ... significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length.
by AM Mitchell - β€Ž2018 - β€ŽCited by 25 - β€ŽRelated articles

The contribution of parent-to-offspring transmission of ...

www.biorxiv.org β€Ί content
 
Mar 5, 2018 - The contribution of parent-to-offspring transmission of telomeres to the ... of trans-generational (i.e., β€œdirect”) inheritance of telomere length.
by DA Delgado - β€Ž2018 - β€ŽCited by 8 - β€ŽRelated articles

Stress, Telomeres, and Psychopathology: Toward a Deeper ...

www.annualreviews.org β€Ί annurev-clinpsy-032816-045054
 
Jump to INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF TELOMERE ... - INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF TELOMERE LENGTH. TL has high genetic heritability of approximately 50% (Broer et al. 2013), but new research suggests that it is also directly transmitted from germ line telomeres (i.e., sperm and eggs).
by ES Epel - β€Ž2018 - β€ŽCited by 37 - β€ŽRelated articles

Paternal age at conception effects on offspring telomere ...

journals.plos.org β€Ί plosgenetics β€Ί article β€Ί journal.pgen....
 
Feb 14, 2019 - Adaptive intergenerational effects are more likely to emerge when ... The contribution of parent-to-offspring transmission of telomeres to the ...
by DTA Eisenberg - β€Ž2019 - β€ŽCited by 3 - β€ŽRelated articles
 
There is also evidence that this process can be addressed as and changed as Jane has suggested:
 

Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov β€Ί pmc β€Ί articles β€Ί PMC3057175
 
Across controlled studies, mindfulness meditation appears to improve physical health symptoms and functioning across a variety of disorders, and increases measures of mental health, including reduced negative affect and increased quality of life. ... It is linked to cardiovascular disease, as well as telomere shortening.
by E Epel - β€Ž2009 - β€ŽCited by 386 - β€ŽRelated articles
β€ŽAbstract Β· β€ŽIntroduction Β· β€ŽNew data: Cognitive ... Β· β€ŽMindfulness Meditation
 
 

Zen meditation, Length of Telomeres, and the Role of ... - NCBI

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov β€Ί pmc β€Ί articles β€Ί PMC4859856
 
Feb 22, 2016 - The possible pathway between meditation and telomere length seems to be that (Schutte and Malouff 2014) mindfulness leads to individuals experiencing less stress, anxiety, and depression, which are all thought to be associated with cortisol level, and this association seems to be associated with telomerase activity.
by M Alda - β€Ž2016 - β€ŽCited by 44 - β€ŽRelated articles
β€ŽAbstract Β· β€ŽMethod Β· β€ŽResults Β· β€ŽDiscussion

Telomere length correlates with subtelomeric DNA ... - Nature

www.nature.com β€Ί scientific reports β€Ί articles
 
Mar 12, 2020 - Mindfulness and meditation techniques have proven successful for the reduction of stress and improvement in general health. In addition ...
by M Mendioroz - β€Ž2020 - β€ŽRelated articles

Insight meditation and telomere biology: The effects of ...

www.sciencedirect.com β€Ί science β€Ί article β€Ί pii
 
Telomeres and the enzyme telomerase interact with a variety of molecular ... Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs (Carlson et al., 2015, ...
by QA Conklin - β€Ž2018 - β€ŽCited by 29 - β€ŽRelated articles
 

The Science of Meditation's Effects on Aging | HuffPost Life

www.huffpost.com β€Ί entry β€Ί the-science-of-meditations...
 
Dec 8, 2015 - Given that mindfulness practice has been historically connected to reduced ruminative thinking and stress, Epel's research team suggested in a 2009 follow-up paper that mindfulness meditation may also have potential positive effects on preservation of telomere length and telomerase activity.
 

Association among dispositional mindfulness, self ...

bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com β€Ί articles
 
Jul 22, 2019 - A key biological marker associated with aging at the cellular level is leukocyte telomere length (LTL) [1]. Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes ...
by SL Keng - β€Ž2019 - β€Ž

 


Physical Activity and Nutrition: Two Promising Strategies for ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov β€Ί pmc β€Ί articles β€Ί PMC6316700
 
Jump to Telomere Regulation by Physical Activity - ... exercise are sufficient to protect telomere health, while ... Finally, leukocyte telomere length was 11% ...

 

 

Five Foods That Protect Your Telomeres and Extend Your Life ...

www.ornish.com β€Ί zine β€Ί five-foods-that-protect-telom...
 
Research shows that those with higher levels of antioxidants such as Vitamin C, E and selenium tend to have longer telomeres. Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of antioxidants, which is why a plant-based diet is highly recommended.

Exercise, Telomeres, and Cancer: β€œThe Exercise ... - Frontiers

www.frontiersin.org β€Ί articles β€Ί fphys.2018.01798 β€Ί full
 
Dec 18, 2018 - In summary, there is evidence that exercise leads to less telomere ... that included weight loss strategies with exercises and nutrition and 58 to ...

The bacteria in your gut may reveal your true age | Science ...

www.sciencemag.org β€Ί news β€Ί 2019/01 β€Ί bacteria-your...
 
Jan 11, 2019 - Scientists say microbiome is a surprisingly accurate biological clock. ... from your ability to digest food to how your immune system functions. ... use to predict biological age, including the length of telomeresβ€”the tips of ..
Last edited by Michael McCarthy

Hi Ingrid. Thank you! I find the differentiation confusing because my understanding is that trauma from environmental issues like abuse and neglect, causes changes in the DNA (thus epigenetics); a  traumatic "imprint"  on the DNA  is transmitted generation to generation. 

Yes, trauma can be one of the causes of epigenetic changes but it’s not the only cause. Literally anything in the environment can cause epigenetic changes. Also epigenetic changes can be positive and negative. 

They say never meet your heroes. Why? Because human beings are flawed and will always slide off those pedestals we create for them. I know a well-respected female mental health professional who once had an awful experience with Bessel. She met him after the JRI split and says he is changed. She forgives him. If she can, I think we should extend towards him kindness and the possibility of change - isn't that the heart of being trauma-informed?

I have never read anything as insightful as The Body Keeps the Score. Let's give credit where it is due. This is what he'll be remembered for, not the outworkings of his own trauma that hurt people. 

Talking of credit where it's due, thank you Michael for these amazing resources that must have taken you a lot of time to reproduce here. Like Jane, I'm a science nerd and will enjoy reading them. 

And Victoria, you are right - it is not just trauma but all kinds of environmental things that cause epigenetic changes. 

Thank you for the interesting read, everyone. So glad to be part of this community.

Lou

hmnn....I've always had great respect for those who help in healing folks via their research, writing and sharing, etc.  I value what folks bring to the table and ever mindful that we are all flawed human beings, so I don't have the hero worship for anyone. It takes a lot of work to keep one's ego in check, whatever field you are in. Coming from the music world, no shortage of ego's and I have witnessed it here in the trauma, abuse, mental health arena as well.

I do respect those who have come through hell and back, I have long felt that those marginalized, held down and hurt in life are the unsung heroes of life. My times spent with fellow trauma and abuse survivors in support groups, hospitalizations, day treatment programs, peer support centers, etc, do fit the definition of being a hero for surviving great obstacles in life. At least in my mind they are.

I do respect Bessell van der Kolk for what he has brought to the table...and I have known those who are his detractors and those who think highly of him. I don't know him, but can attest to what he did for helping a small nonprofit group, The NH Incest Center,  I was involved with many years ago in the mid 90's to the early 2000's.  Our main way of raising funds was having well known speakers come in and share their works with their peers, psychologists, psychiatrists, therapists, etc. Dr. Bessell van der Kolk and Dr. Anna Salter both came and spoke for free...and I have long remembered how they engaged with us, the survivors...with great respect and took any and all phone calls from those of us involved in putting on these events. Other well known folks also came and spoke at reduced fees enabling our little group to raise awareness, advocate and support survivors with resources and help keep the lights on for our little office in Concord, NH.

 

Last edited by Michael Skinner

I respect van der Kolk and Judith Herman's destigmatizing of borderline personality disorder- which was, and still is, over-diagnosed in especially women who have significant trauma histories. His contention that CBT (with 30-plus varieties) is ineffective in ludicrous. He engages in cherry-picking of research (what is known to people like myself, with years of training as a scientist-practitioner knows as "confirmation bias"). I could go into a lot more, but there is ongoing litigation and as a person from a family full of attorneys, I'm not going into any details on their advice.  I've never said van der Kolk made no contributions. I'm saying a New York Time's bestseller does not meet the rigors of science. I wlth stating that I was socialized with the value that the custodian deserves as much respect as a Nobel winning scientist. How we treat others is a great indicator of the contents of our soul. van der Kolk's contention that the relational aspects of therapy are insignificant says more about him, than the reams of extant research to the contrary.

They say never meet your heroes. Why? Because human beings are flawed and will always slide off those pedestals we create for them. I know a well-respected female mental health professional who once had an awful experience with Bessel. She met him after the JRI split and says he is changed. She forgives him. If she can, I think we should extend towards him kindness and the possibility of change - isn't that the heart of being trauma-informed?

I have never read anything as insightful as The Body Keeps the Score. Let's give credit where it is due. This is what he'll be remembered for, not the outworkings of his own trauma that hurt people. 

Talking of credit where it's due, thank you Michael for these amazing resources that must have taken you a lot of time to reproduce here. Like Jane, I'm a science nerd and will enjoy reading them. 

And Victoria, you are right - it is not just trauma but all kinds of environmental things that cause epigenetic changes. 

Thank you for the interesting read, everyone. So glad to be part of this community.

Lou

I LOVE this conversation and all the resources.  Thank you, Michael. I will totally nerd out on them! 

I would like to add to Michaels' comment that I really really really struggle, especially in light of the anti-racist consciousness, that our field is dominated by old white men.  Let me name a few that I have great respect for:  Dr. Bruce Perry, Dr. Gabor Mate, Dr. Peter Levine, Dr. Stephen Porges, Dr. Laurence Heller, Dr. Jack Shonkoff, Dr. Ross Greene, etc and they hold the reigns tight - in terms of power.   Yes, we can point to a few women or people of color that garner international recognition (i.e. Nadine Burke Harris), but the fact remains that the aforementioned individuals and others like them still hold the most power in the field.

Again, this isn't to take away from their work or the ways in which they have helped to enlighten millions of us, but the fact remains that those with the "most say" "most credit" and "most visibility" is not a reflection of gender and race superiority.  It's a reflection of patriarchal, white supremacy structures that mostly afforded these men the most opportunity.  Additionally, when I first entered this work, I kept asking - literally asking people - why wasn't there more obvious collaboration among these distinguished voices in order to raise consciousness faster.  "Why aren't we leveraging the whole for more change?" I actually asked this question directly to Dr. van der Kolk at one of his conferences (privately).  He was immediately defense mobilized and dismissed my question by saying, "I have been bringing the best and brightest minds to my conference for 30 some years..."  He didn't get what I was asking.  I asked the same question in my training with Dr. Levine's institution.  Why weren't "these men" working more collaboratively to puncture mass consciousness about this matter?  I was told "egos get in the way."  "Emily, there's a lot of ego in the field of traumatology."  Really?  S.H.I.T,... 

I know that ACES Connection has really leveraged the whole; THANK YOU!  Thank God you exist.  Where would so many be if we didn't have this platform? Where would I be if I didn't have this platform?  

I would be sitting in my bedroom, reading Bessel's work with tears streaming down my face, thinking, "How long must the suffering go on? How long?"

If you eat a specific food, that will cause specific epigenetic changes.  If you smoke cigarettes, that will cause specific epigenetic changes.  If you use psychiatric drugs, that will cause specific epigenetic changes. Some of these epigenetic changes happen to the gametes.  Many epigenetic changes happen to the developing organism starting from the time when the sperm meets the egg ie from the time of conception through one's entire life to the time of death.  

Every experience we have impacts our bodies through epigenetic mechanisms which just means that promotor regions on DNA get modified so that DNA is made into protein to affect the structure and function of the body (or to prevent a protein that would otherwise be made from being made) in very unique combinations related to experience.  This is necessary so that the organism can survive in the environment that  organism finds him or herself developing in. 

The genetic make up that we are born with (22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes) doesn't provide enough variability to allow the human (or any biological organism) to adapt to the environment one finds oneself in.   Every experience we have affects us via epigenetics. 

Some experiences like the Dutch Hunger Winter have been found to affect gametes.  I am not sure that good and reproducible science, has shown completely which of these gamete changes can be reversed by a different environmental experience in offspring.

Also - some people who have experienced trauma do Neurofeedback to attempt to calm down their nervous systems.  I would like to suggest, that EVERY EXPERIENCE we have is Neurofeedback and operates ultimately through epigenetics.   The most natural neurofeedback that all people are exposed to and the most impactful on the developing human organism from the time the sperm meets the egg up to the age of 3 is human experience.  

It is through this human experience that the greatest contribution to "intergenerational transmission" (of behavioral traits) is made. 

Last edited by Lisa Geath

I LOVE this conversation and all the resources.  Thank you, Michael. I will totally nerd out on them! 

I would like to add to Michaels' comment that I really really really struggle, especially in light of the anti-racist consciousness, that our field is dominated by old white men.  Let me name a few that I have great respect for:  Dr. Bruce Perry, Dr. Gabor Mate, Dr. Peter Levine, Dr. Stephen Porges, Dr. Laurence Heller, Dr. Jack Shonkoff, Dr. Ross Greene, etc and they hold the reigns tight - in terms of power.   Yes, we can point to a few women or people of color that garner international recognition (i.e. Nadine Burke Harris), but the fact remains that the aforementioned individuals and others like them still hold the most power in the field.

Again, this isn't to take away from their work or the ways in which they have helped to enlighten millions of us, but the fact remains that those with the "most say" "most credit" and "most visibility" is not a reflection of gender and race superiority.  It's a reflection of patriarchal, white supremacy structures that mostly afforded these men the most opportunity.  Additionally, when I first entered this work, I kept asking - literally asking people - why wasn't there more obvious collaboration among these distinguished voices in order to raise consciousness faster.  "Why aren't we leveraging the whole for more change?" I actually asked this question directly to Dr. van der Kolk at one of his conferences (privately).  He was immediately defense mobilized and dismissed my question by saying, "I have been bringing the best and brightest minds to my conference for 30 some years..."  He didn't get what I was asking.  I asked the same question in my training with Dr. Levine's institution.  Why weren't "these men" working more collaboratively to puncture mass consciousness about this matter?  I was told "egos get in the way."  "Emily, there's a lot of ego in the field of traumatology."  Really?  S.H.I.T,... 

I know that ACES Connection has really leveraged the whole; THANK YOU!  Thank God you exist.  Where would so many be if we didn't have this platform? Where would I be if I didn't have this platform?  

I would be sitting in my bedroom, reading Bessel's work with tears streaming down my face, thinking, "How long must the suffering go on? How long?"

Emily!!! Yessss! So well expressed.  Thank you πŸ™πŸ™πŸ™πŸ™

@Lisa Geath posted:

If you eat a specific food, that will cause specific epigenetic changes.  If you smoke cigarettes, that will cause specific epigenetic changes.  If you use psychiatric drugs, that will cause specific epigenetic changes. Some of these epigenetic changes happen to the gametes.  Many epigenetic changes happen to the developing organism starting from the time when the sperm meets the egg ie from the time of conception through one's entire life to the time of death.  

Every experience we have impacts our bodies through epigenetic mechanisms which just means that promotor regions on DNA get modified so that DNA is made into protein to affect the structure and function of the body (or to prevent a protein that would otherwise be made from being made) in very unique combinations related to experience.  This is necessary so that the organism can survive in the environment that  organism finds him or herself developing in. 

The genetic make up that we are born with (22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes) doesn't provide enough variability to allow the human (or any biological organism) to adapt to the environment one finds oneself in.   Every experience we have affects us via epigenetics. 

Some experiences like the Dutch Hunger Winter have been found to affect gametes.  I am not sure that good and reproducible science, has shown completely which of these gamete changes can be reversed by a different environmental experience in offspring.

Also - some people who have experienced trauma do Neurofeedback to attempt to calm down their nervous systems.  I would like to suggest, that EVERY EXPERIENCE we have is Neurofeedback and operates ultimately through epigenetics.   The most natural neurofeedback that all people are exposed to and the most impactful on the developing human organism from the time the sperm meets the egg up to the age of 3 is human experience.  

It is through this human experience that the greatest contribution to "intergenerational transmission" (of behavioral traits) is made. 

Brilliant!!!!! πŸ™ŒπŸ€“πŸ™Œ

Hi Emily

On one of "The Better Normal" webinar on Racial Health I posted several resources from Black psychologists concerning intergenerational trauma by likes of my favorite black family therapist and psychologist, Ken Hardy (a follower, in part, of Murray Bowen) and (Joy Deguy, for example). They never made it on "official" resource lists, so I will repost some of them now.

I was orignally trained in Social Work and my undergraduate training required that I minor in minor studies- I chose "African American Studies" and was introduced many of the great minds in that field through their works.

In one course, we watched a video by social psychologist, whose name escapes me (this was in 1989). Her research concerned the internalized self-image of White versus Black children and her instruments were two identical drawings of Little Bo Peep except for one had a White face and one had a Black. The respondents were White and Black young children and they were asked to describe both pictures.  The disturbing results were that both the White and Black children, girls and boys, all describe the White Bo Peep in superlatives, while the Black Bo Peep was decribed with negative adjectives.

This trauma- an assault on the self. It's described in the social psychology and sociology literature from the symbolic interactionalist approach, especially Charles Cooley's "Looking Glass Self. 

https://lesley.edu/article/per...e-looking-glass-self

We see it in literature as exemplified in Toni Morrison's "The Bluest Eye" where the little girl believes she is treated so poorly because she doesn't have White features.

The Bluest Eye pdf

https://docs.google.com/viewer...YmE4MDgwMThkM2QzNDc5

Yes, there needs to be a presence of Black therapists in prominence. Not only do they have the research behind them- they have the lived experience.

You shouldn't have to wait, like I had to, to be in a psychology graduate program to be exposed to Ken Hardy, Dr, Deruy or Michelle Alexander, who I fond after graduation. Mass incarceration, that Prof. Alexander writes about in "The New Jim Crow," is also an assault on Black families resulting in intergenerational trauma. The White men you mention are perfect example of neoliberal, post-colonial, structuralism that is over-focused on individuals at the expense of seeing the bigger picture of traumatogenics. Those marco-level issues are what needs to addressed on the participants in #BlackLivesMatter ubderstabd very well.

https://www.vanderbilt.edu/ctp/The_New_Jim_Crow.pdf

 

Ken Hardy on The Assaulted Sense of Self

https://www.youtube.com/watch?...6A5oecUWM&t=122s

Dr. Kenneth Hardy - Truama

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5mtPXRAKf8 

..Revealing White Privilege and Healing Racial Trauma with Dr. Kenneth Hardy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?...ssA1b0yo&t=6941s

 
 

Breaking Generational Cycles of Trauma | Brandy Wells

 

Intergenerational Trauma Animation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlqx8EYvRbQ&t=2s

 

 
1:21:36NOW PLAYING
 
 
 
5:48NOW PLAYING
 
 
How is Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome different from PTSD? Dr. Joy DeGruy explains how trauma can be passed on generation ...
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Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome with Dr. Joy Degruy You may have seen Dr. Joy Degruy in the viral video from AJ+. I will include ...
 
 
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Dr Joy Degruy explains what is post traumatic slave disorder. And the effects of it. Thanks for watching.
 
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Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome: America's Legacy of Enduring Injury and Healing (PTSS) is a 2005 book resulting from years of ...
 
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Dr. Joy Leary (now DeGruy) from the Graduate School of Social Work discusses her highly-acclaimed book, "Post-Traumatic ...
 
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Dr. Joy Leary from the Graduate School of Social Work discusses her highly-acclaimed book, "Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome.
 
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Dr. Joy Angela DeGruy-Leary - Post Traumat